Monday, June 1, 2020

Analysis Of Robert Walton, A Character In Frankenstein By Mary Shelley - 275 Words

Analysis Of Robert Walton, A Character In Frankenstein By Mary Shelley (Essay Sample) Content: Student’s Name Professor’s Name Subject DD MM YYYY Character Analysis of Robert Walton In â€Å"Frankenstein,† Robert Walton is first revealed in the letter that he directs to his sister concerning his curiosity. The neglection of Walton’s education turns him into a mad scientist proving the fact that knowledge may be dangerous in specific circumstances. Walton notes that his education was neglected despite his intense passion for learning as seen through his consistent reading. He states, â€Å"I often worked harder than the common sailors during the day and devoted my night to the study of mathematics" (Shelley 3). He invests much of his time in gaining knowledge which the society eventually fail to accept. Walton identifies himself separately from the rest of the men. Notably, he gets on a ship to a place where he does not know anyone. His self-opinionated view that he is superior makes him spend substantial time on his own, separate from the crew. In the fourth letter, Walton claims, â€Å"I said in one of my letters, my dear Margaret, that I should find no friend on the wide ocean† (Shelley 26). He suffers loneliness that he wishes someone else would be with him. In the pursuit of knowledge, Walton turns out dangerous. He intends to make a discovery that no other person has made their whole lives. He goes to hazardous destinations which leads to his suffering. Shelley notes, â€Å"Learn from me, if not by my precepts, at least by my example, how dangerous is the acquirement of knowledge...

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Why Has Ipo Underpricing Changed over Time - 13588 Words

Why Has IPO Underpricing Changed Over Time? Tim Loughran and Jay Ritter* lu the l9SOs. the average first-day rcliirn on inilial public offerings (IPOs) was 7%, The average firsl-day return doubled to almost I5 i during 1990-1998. before jumping to 65% during Ihe internet bubble years of 1999-2000 and then reverting la / i % during 2001-2003. We attribute much of the higher underpricing during the bubble period to a changing issuer objective function. We argue that in the later periods there wav less focus on maximizing IPO proceeds due to an increased emphasis on research coverage. Furthermore, allocations of hot IPOs to the personal brokerage accounts oj issuing firm executives created an incentive to seek rather than avoid†¦show more content†¦(Money on the table is the change between the offer price and the first closing market price, multiplied by the number of shares sold.) The hypothesized reasons for the increased acquiescence are reduced chief executive officer (CEO) ownership, fewer IPOs containing secondar y shares, increased ownership fragmentation, and an increased frequeney and size of friends and family share allocations. These changes made issuing firm decision-makers less motivated to bargain for a higher offer price. The realignment of incentives hypothesis is similar to the changing risk composition hypothesis in that it is changes in the characteristics of ownership, rather than any nonstationarities in the pricing relations, that are associated with changes in average underpricing. It differs from the changing risk composition hypothesis, however, in that underpricing is not determined solely by the investor demand side of the market. In our empirical work, we find little support for the realignment of ineentives hypothesis as an explanation for substantial changes in underpricing. We find no relation between the inclusion of secondary shares in an IPO and underpricing. And although CEO fractional ownership was lower during the internet bubble period, the CEO dollar ownershi p (the market value of the CEO s holdings) was substantially higher, resulting in increased incentives to avoid underpricing. Furthermore, it is possible that changes inShow MoreRelatedThe First Life Cycle Theory1206 Words   |  5 Pagessuggested that take-over targets are easier for potential buyers to spot when they are public. Furthermore it is easier for potential buyers to pressure the targets for concessions on price than it is to pressure external investors. Thus in theory an IPO facilitates the acquisition of their company at a higher price than an outright sale. However, although the potential price may be higher with an IPO, IPOs are also often costly to perform with their fees, listing requirements and underpricing. Secondly asRead MoreChina s Stock Market And Its Abnormal Characteristics3750 Words   |  15 Pagesmarket has witnessed rapid growth from a global perspective over last decades, along with massive IPO activities emerged with a huge amount of fund raised. T he reasons why the Chinese initial public offering (IPO) market and its abnormal characteristics have drawn more interests from investors can be attributed to multiple aspects. First, one of the most significant puzzles of IPO – underpricing – is at an unimaginably high level in Chinese IPO market. Although the degree of underpricing varies enormouslyRead MoreThe Process of an Initial Public Offering (Ipo). the Underpricing Problem.3310 Words   |  14 Pages1. Introduction All companies need to raise capital at one time or another, first of all to start-up their business, and then to finance new projects and expand operations. Most of them start out by raising money from private sources, with no liquid market existing if the investors wish to sell their stock. A lot of new ventures rely initially on these internal funds, which come mostly from relatives and friends; some other firms, instead, receive help from the so-called â€Å"angel investors†. FurthermoreRead MoreBehavioral Finance3882 Words   |  16 Pagesmaximization with rational investors in efficient markets. The two building blocks of behavioral finance are cognitive psychology (how people think) and the limits to arbitrage (when markets will be inefficient). The growth of behavioral finance research has been fueled by the inability of the traditional framework to explain many empirical patterns, including stock market bubbles in Japan, Taiwan, and the U.S. JEL classification: G14; D81 Keywords: Behavioral finance; arbitrage; psychology; marketRead MoreQuant Job Interview Questions And Answers.pdf9483 Words   |  38 PagesWorking Paper: An Empirical Investigation of Initial Public Offering (IPO) Performance Zachary A. Smith, Ph.D. An Empirical Analysis of Initial Public Offering (IPO) Performance Zachary A. Smith, Ph.D. 507 Winchester Road Jacksonville, NC 28546 (757) 553-1692 Working Paper: An Empirical Investigation of Initial Public Offering (IPO) Performance Zachary A. 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Starting to write before permitted to do so may be seen as an attempt toRead MoreMaster Thesis Topic18078 Words   |  73 PagesMaster Thesis Topics Finance amp; Investments 2009-2010 Table of Contents Master Thesis topic 1: The Design of Lockup Contracts in IPO Firms in Europe 4 Master Thesis topic 2: Bank Risk Management 6 Master Thesis topic 3: The Ambiguous Role of Credit Ratings 8 Master Thesis topic 4: Mergers and Acquisitions 9 Master Thesis topic 5: Trading Volume and Asset Prices 10 Master Thesis topic 6: Liquidity in Asset Markets 11 Master Thesis topic 7: The Role of Corporate Governance in Mergers andRead MoreSolutions: Income Statement and Pearson Education121412 Words   |  486 PagesChapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24 Chapter 25 Chapter 26 Chapter 27 Chapter 28 Chapter 29 Chapter 30 Chapter 31 The Corporation Introduction to Financial Statement Analysis Arbitrage and Financial Decision Making The Time Value of Money Interest Rates Investment Decision Rules Fundamentals of Capital Budgeting Valuing Bonds Valuing Stocks Capital Markets and the Pricing of Risk Optimal Portfolio Choice and the Capital Asset Pricing Model Estimating the Cost of CapitalRead MoreDebt vs. Equity and Asymmetric Information: a Review16933 Words   |  68 Pagesissues related to the adverse investment selection problem of Myers-Majluf. Finally, we discuss the timing hypothesis of capital structure. Empirical studies do not consistently support one theory of capital structure under information asymmetry over the others. Thus, the review suggests that additional theoretical contributions are needed to help understand and explain findings in the empirical literature. Keywords: capital structure, asymmetric information, pecking order hypothesis, timingRead MoreBodie, Kane, Marcus Study Guide Essay40928 Words   |  164 Pagessacrifice. One gives up some current consumption to be able to consumer more in the future (or to be able to consumer at all in the future if the goal is simply capital preservation.) Financial assets provide a ready vehicle to transfer consumption through time. They may be more appropriate investments than real assets for many investors. The distinctions between real and financial assets (see below) can be used to discuss key differences in their nature and in their appropriateness as investment vehicles

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Play in Early Childhood-Free-Samples for Students-Myassignment

Question: Analyse various Issues raised in Early Childhood and Examine their Impact on Children. Answer: Introduction Early childhood is a vital stage for all children that lay down the foundation for their growth in life; it is the stage between 0-8 years that is considered to be a significantly sensitive stage. Many studies have provided that the growth of active neural pathways in the brain happened during the early childhood stage and especially before the age of three. Therefore, it is considered essential that children are given various opportunities for emotional, social, intellectual and physical growth which provide them numerous educational, social and economic benefits. During this critical period of early childhood development, parents, teachers, and educators face various issues that can the adversely affect the development of a child, such as construction issues, technology problems, ethics, readiness and many others. This essay will focus on analysing various issues raised in early childhood and examine their impact on children. Further, the article will provide recommendations to ens ure these problems are not affecting childrens growth negatively Issues in Early Childhood Early childhood is a sensitive stage for children since most of their development, both mental and physical, happened in such phase. The parents, teachers, and educators face various challenges which negatively affect the development of a child. The children face issues regarding readiness and transition in early childhood. Readiness means preparing for future events; children readiness is defined as the transition into kindergarten (Schwartz, Tuchman, Hobbie Ginsberg, 2011). Various factors, such as parents, school administration, teachers, society and the local community, work together to provide a satisfactory school experience to children. In other words, it means preparing the children to succeed in school, socially, cognitively and emotionally; these factors differentiate the disadvantaged children with affluent peers. The transition from early childhood home to the new facility is a significant experience for both children and their families, and this procedure should be smoo th and completed within appropriate time. Effective school readiness program provides necessary information to the parents and healthcare professionals that assist in identifying whether the child has necessary skills and qualities to start a fruitful school experience. Readiness defines the ability which is essential for children to learn and succeed in school (Vogler, Crivello Woodhead, 2008). The quality of education assist children in succeeds or failed in life, therefore, it is a significantly important procedure. The importance of the transition to kindergarten has become a rising issue for federal and state governments due to its importance on childrens future. A national survey conducted on kindergarten teachers experience, found that more than half of children face difficulty in kindergarten. The transition is difficult for children because they lack the mental and physical skills or knowledge to learn new things smoothly, and their families and local communities failed to realise their problems (Peters, 2010). For inadequately prepared children it is considerably difficult to learn and understand schools environment, it also has a negative influence on their studies. These issues also happen due to the problem in the family since the parents failed to teach their kids necessary skills for smooth transitions; it is the primary responsibility of parents to prepare their child for a smooth transition (Mistry, Benner, Biesanz, Clark Howes, 2010). For example, before the transition, parents can prepare their child for school by establishing similar environment at home. They can buy uniforms, pack lunch and establish few rules to make children aware regarding schools environment. The parents can role-play with their children to teach them and make them familiar with school regulations, such as asking permission for using the bathroom, fixed time for a lunch break and teaching them discipline behaviour. Kagan Tarrant (2010) provided that a substantial percentage of children are deprived of necessary resources which are essential for their physical and mental development. More than one-fifth of the children lived in poverty, and around half of all children face one or more risks relating to the gap in school readiness. Due to this gap, there is a considerable shortfall in pro-social behaviour, academic achievement, and educational attainment, all of which resulted in higher unemployment and criminality rates. The children with better readiness have a smooth transition to the school which resulted in better academic education; on the other hand, children without the skills face difficulty in the future. The lack of readiness is disadvantageous for the children because they are not able to perform better than compared to their affluent peers in professional positions. Those children and their families face various difficulties which also negatively affect society (Dockett Perry, 2009 ). All professional jobs require a high level of academics which is difficult to attain without smooth transition and efficient readiness. The lack of readiness increases the rate of unemployment, crimes, and suicide, which negatively affect the development of society. The children face readiness and transition issues in the traditional education system, but they are surprisingly comfortable with modern technology. Young children love using and playing with modern technology, such as tablets, smartphones, music players, televisions, cameras, computers, and others (McKenney Voogt, 2010). The children use these technologies in their homes, classrooms, or child care centers. In case of schools, teachers have always been using technologies such as television, DVD or recorder to show documentaries, teach history or teach students how to use such gadgets. But, now teachers are using considerable powerful devices such as smartphones, tablets, or computers in their professional and personal lives. Modern technology assists teachers in performing various tasks, but they should avoid using them in schools and day care centres. Teachers should perform such activities which build physical and mental abilities of students rather than exposing them to gadgets. As per Sadao Robinson (2010), many studies have proved the negative impact of technology on childrens development that resulted in serious problems such as obesity, attitude problems, decreased academic performance, negative social life, eyesight problems, irregular sleep patterns and many others. Even with numerous of disadvantages, people keep using technology in schools, homes, and child care centers because they are powerful tools for teaching and learning. The time spent by children on technology is significantly crucial because it affects them positively or negatively. Nowadays children did not get any free time from the technology; they use it at home, school, and other places because it is easily accessible (Epstein et al., 2008). Now children use technology for various reasons such as watching movies, playing video games, listing to music, surf web, and many others. These activities take up a lot of the childrens time due to which they did not go outside to play, which stop their mental and physical development. According to Northcote (2011), spending too much time on gadgets negatively affects the development of social skills in children; they did not experience any face to face interactions which hinders their social development. The lack of social interaction ability influence their professional carer because most of the careers require a high level of social skills such as sales job, marketing, advocacy, health care and many others. The use of Internet-based services is increasing rapidly; the popularity of internet of things connects everyday gadgets to the internet which also made them easily accessible to children. The Internet is not a safe place for children because it contains profanity, sexual content and violent material that can be easily accessed; it has become difficult for parents to manage their childrens internet usage (Currie Eveline, 2011). The dependability of children on technology for learning and entertainment is a potential threat to the traditional method of educat ion and socialising. The parents and teachers are required to reduce and monitor the use of technology by children since it can adversely influence their development and professional opportunities. The ethics are significantly crucial while using the internet and it is also necessary to teach the principle of ethics to children in early childhood. A childs experience and learning in early years have a significant impact on his/her future opportunities. The code of ethics learned by children in early childhood allows them to take appropriate actions in conflicting situations that they face in their life (Mac Naughton, Rolfe Siraj-Blatchford, 2010). The ethics define right or wrong actions taken by peoples based on their personal morals and values during ethical dilemmas. The ethical dilemmas are the moral conflicts which require peoples to take appropriate actions in an unfavorable situation based on their personal and professional values. The teaching of ethical and moral values to children helps them become a good person who contributes to the development of society. As per Thomas (2012), the lack of ethics can adversely affect personal life of a child, and it is also dangerous for society. The lack of ethics increases the rate of crimes in the community because it is easier for unethical peoples to commit a crime. To reduce the rate of crimes, it is necessary that every person follows the principle of ethics. The lack of ethics affected the education of children because they are less likely to do the tasks given by the teachers. Lack of ethics also impacted the professional life of peoples since they are more likely to commit fraud in a company. According to Alderson Morrow (2011), the code of ethics provided by Early Childhood Australia shows the importance of teaching ethics to children at an early stage. A collaborative contribution of parents, teachers, early childhood professional, and society is necessary to teach children importance of ethics. Many times the parents failed to teach ethical values to their children which negatively affect s their readiness and transition. The parents have the responsibility to educate their children about ethics and its importance. Unfortunately, there comes a time when children lie to their parents or cheats in an exam, but it does not mean it is too late for them. The parents should do their job by establishing a system of values and daily enforce such values on the children (Brierley Larcher, 2010). There are two steps that parents can use to teach their child regarding the importance of ethics. Firstly they are required to be a focus on the values which are essential to be taught and secondly they are required to daily enforce such values by relating them with positive and negative consequences. Ethics cannot be taught overnight, and it is certainly not an easy process. Other than parents, teachers and early childhood professionals can also assist in teaching children the importance of ethics. The parents, teachers, and society are requiring adopting a suitable approach that teaches children role of ethics in per sonal and social development (Giovacco-Johnson, 2011). The teaching of ethics is an essential part of early childhood because it improves the future growth and professional life of children Conclusion To conclude, early childhood is a critical stage for children because it influences their future development and professional career. The children face various issues during the early childhood such as readiness and transition problem, technology issues and ethical dilemmas. The readiness defines preparation for future events to smooth the transition of children from home to kindergarten or school. The advancement of technology has increases issues such as profanity, lack of sleep, obesity, negative attitude, eyesight problems, disturbed social life and many others. The parents and teacher should reduce the time spent by children using technology and increase their social interactions which will assist children in their professional career. Ethics play a crucial role in the development of a person and society, and lack of ethical principles creates several problems such as increasing rate of crimes, social imbalance, and many others. The parents, teachers and local community should c ollaboratively remove these issues from the early childhood of children to improve their social and professional development. References Alderson, P., Morrow, V. (2011).The ethics of research with children and young people: A practical handbook. Sage Publications Ltd. Brierley, J., Larcher, V. (2010). Lest we forget research ethics in children: perhaps onerous, yet absolutely necessary. Currie, J., Eveline, J. (2011). E-technology and work/life balance for academics with young children.Higher Education,62(4), 533-550. Dockett, S., Perry, B. (2009). Readiness for school: a relational construct.Australasian Journal of Early Childhood,34(1), 20. Epstein, L. H., Roemmich, J. N., Robinson, J. L., Paluch, R. A., Winiewicz, D. D., Fuerch, J. H., Robinson, T. N. (2008). A randomized trial of the effects of reducing television viewing and computer use on body mass index in young children.Archives of pediatrics adolescent medicine,162(3), 239-245. Giovacco-Johnson, T. (2011). Applied ethics as a foundation in early childhood teacher education: Exploring the connections and possibilities.Early Childhood Education Journal,38(6), 449-456. Kagan, S. L., Tarrant, K. (2010).Transitions for Young Children: Creating Connections across Early Childhood Systems. Brookes Publishing Company. PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285. Mac Naughton, G., Rolfe, S., Siraj-Blatchford, I. (2010).Doing early childhood research. McGraw-Hill Education (UK). McKenney, S., Voogt, J. (2010). Technology and young children: How 47 year olds perceive their own use of computers.Computers in Human Behavior,26(4), 656-664. Mistry, R. S., Benner, A. D., Biesanz, J. C., Clark, S. L., Howes, C. (2010). Family and social risk, and parental investments during the early childhood years as predictors of low-income children's school readiness outcomes.Early Childhood Research Quarterly,25(4), 432-449. Northcote, M. (2011). Teaching with Technology: Step Back and Hand over the Cameras! Using Digital Cameras to Facilitate Mathematics Learning with Young Children in K-2 Classrooms.Australian primary mathematics classroom,16(3), 29-32. Peters, S. (2010). Literature review: Transition from early childhood education to school.Report to the Ministry of Education, New Zealand. Sadao, K. C., Robinson, N. B. (2010).Assistive Technology for Young Children: Creating Inclusive Learning Environments. Brookes Publishing Company. PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285. Schwartz, L. A., Tuchman, L. K., Hobbie, W. L., Ginsberg, J. P. (2011). A social?ecological model of readiness for transition to adult?oriented care for adolescents and young adults with chronic health conditions.Child: care, health and development,37(6), 883-895. Thomas, L. (2012). New possibilities in thinking, speaking and doing: Early childhood teachers' professional identity constructions and ethics.Australasian Journal of Early Childhood,37(3), 87. Vogler, P., Crivello, G., Woodhead, M. (2008).Early Childhood Transitions Research: A Review of Concepts, Theory, and Practice. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 48. Bernard van Leer Foundation. PO Box 82334, 2508 EH, The Hague, The Netherland

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Opposing Genetically Modified Organisms Essays - Biology

Opposing Genetically Modified Organisms As a result of biotechnology and its wake of controversy that follows, a number or organizations have voiced their concerns toward the corporate driven discipline. As a product of biotechnologies carelessness, or motives, activist groups have risen throughout the world opposing the novelty of genetically modified organisms. The intent of biotech companies is to market and eventually sell these innovations, eventually increasing their profits and stock prices so new products can be funded while the shareholders line their pockets. Opposing organizations which see biotechnologies incentives as a danger to society and the many other life forms that exist on our planet interrupts such a process. Greenpeace is perhaps the biggest organization in opposition to genetically modified organisms. Greenpeace is an international environmental organization which fights to help protect and restore the environment. It is currently involved in a number of areas including; climate, toxics, nuclear, oceans, ocean dumping, forests and the somewhat novel area of genetic engineering. According to Greenpeace, genetically modified organisms must not be released in the environment, as the consequences for the environment and evolution are unpredictable and irreversible (Greenpeace, 2000). Once released, the new living organisms made by genetic engineering are able to interact with other forms of life, reproduce, transfer their characteristics and mutate in response to environmental influences. In most cases they can never be recalled or contained. Any mistakes or undesirable consequences could be passed on to all future generations of life. Greenpeace addresses facts like these on their website, adding that the introduction of foreign species is a major cause of ecological disruption and erosion of biodiversity. For example, in the United States alone, 42% of the species on the threatened or endangered species list are at risk primarily because of non-indigenous species costing the US economy an estimated $123 billion a year (Greenpeace, 2000). Other activist organizations take a similar stand. Another outspoken group opposing genetically modified organisms is the Sierra Club of Canada. The Sierra Club has been active in Canada since 1969, working on matters of public policy and environmental awareness. They also have local chapters and working groups in every region of the country. With their new, ?Welcome to the Safe Food / Sustainable Agriculture Campaign,? the Sierra Club is informing the public on the dangers of genetic engineering. They have started this campaign by distributing information packets and by making frequent visits to grocery stores notifying the public of engineered products which rest on the shelves. With their in-your-face type of opposition, groups such as the Campaign for Food Safety and Family Farm Defenders speak out against genetic engineering. With its growing concerns on plants and animals other organizations branch off and concentrate on specific areas, such as the Environmental Defence Fund and The American Humane Society (Boyens, 2000). These organizations strive to address biotechnology from different, but interrelated perspectives in terms of environmental, health and animal consideration. Organizations such as these rely on their

Saturday, March 14, 2020

The eNotes Blog The Great American Teach-Off for2013!

The Great American Teach-Off for2013! Know a teacher who could use and deserves $10,000? Well, hurry, as it is almost last call for nominating an educator who shows innovation and dedication to their craft.   The $10,000 classroom grant will be awarded by GOOD Partnerships and the University of Phoenix. There will be twenty finalists selected from teachers of grades Kindergarten through Twelfth this  February 15, 2013 at noon PT.    Voting for the finalists begins March 4 and in a course of five weeks, the GOOD community will vote for their favorite teacher. At the end of the five weeks, the top voted K through 6 teacher and top voted 7 through 12 teacher will each receive a $10,000 classroom grant. What are the judge looking for? [T]eachers that are not only changing the lives of their students, but also their community. We want to hear all about the teachers that are integrating technology into the classroom, doing community outreach with their students, or pushing their students to learn and think in different ways so that they can graduate successfully and achieve beyond the classroom. For ideas and inspiration, you can watch videos of last years winners,  Terry Dougherty  and  Ã‚  Daryl Bilandzija.   Good luck to all the great candidates out there and dont forget: the deadline for applications is this Friday!

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Homicide criminal law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Homicide criminal law - Essay Example e criminally liable if his conduct was the factual cause of Tom’s death and the consequence of death would not have happened â€Å"but for† Sanjay’s conduct. If we apply the â€Å"but for† test to the current situation, arguably Tom would not have been in hospital with severe internal injuries if had not been for Sanjay’s actions, therefore under the â€Å"but for test†, it is more than likely that Sanjay’s conduct will have satisfied the requirement of factual cause of death. However, it is also evident from the facts that Tom subsequently died of a blood transfusion at the hospital as a result of receiving the wrong blood type, which the doctors failed to notice. As a result, Tom died and this begs the question as to whether Sanjay was in fact the legal cause of death or whether the failure to give Tom the correct blood type in the transfusion was in fact the cause of death. Under the legal causation test, it is not necessary for Sanjay’s conduct to be the sole cause of death however it must be the substantial cause and have made a significant contribution to Tom’s death3. Ultimately, this is determined according to the facts of each case, however case law has established that the original wound must still be operating and a substantial cause at the time of death4. With regard to the current scenario, the doctors failed to administer the correct blood type in the transfusion and therefore one could argue that it was their failure was the substantial cause of Tom’s death. However, UK courts have been reluctant to break the chain of causation in cases where medical negligence is involved. A prime example is the case of Smith,5 where the victim was stabbed by Smith but died due to medical negligence. Despite there being a 75% chance of recovery but for these events occurring, the courts still held that the chain of causation was not broken. Although a different approach was used in the case of Jordan6 where negligent medical treatment was

Monday, February 10, 2020

Educational Inequality in America Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Educational Inequality in America - Essay Example Educational inequality has been a major priority of researchers in the US. Researchers have centered on the impact of poverty, or of social class, or of gender, or of ethnicity or race on young people's personal experience of education. In a related study on educational inequality, the theoretical concept for their study pinpointed the concept of social division as a lens in understanding the link between class and gender relations in shaping the educational achievements of students from ruling-class and working-class families. Thus, the social dynamics of class relations and gender relations is riddled with numerous tensions and contradiction. These can be seen as structuring processes rather than 'systems' in which social relations is organised and disorganised through time. The interaction of gender and class for a working class signifies a relationship between processes. (Connell et al., 1982:179-81). In addition, Connell et al.'s call for reform is one which does away with the stringent academic curriculum for one which works in the interests of the majority of the population rather than the 'ruling class' minority. The study's conclusion is that certain private schools are organic to the ruling class. It a;sp sjoes-and their distressing evidence which shows the extent to which state schools are a disruptive, disempowering force in the lives of the working class-the group call for a form of schooling organic to the working class. (Connell et al., 1982:179-81).Furthermore, Connell et al. emphasize the 'doing of history' perspective at the individual, group, institutional and structural levels. The basic concepts to their approach are practice consisting of the activities of people as they live their daily lives. The situation pertains to the home, school, and to the social and cultural characteristics of the social interaction. Each level of academic experience is viewed from dif ferent aspects of the same dynamic reality and each exists in a reciprocal relationship with the others. . (Connell et al., 1982:179-81). Children from simple family backgrounds The report by James Coleman was a response to Section 402 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which called for a survey to discuss the apparent lack of equal educational opportunities for persons by reason of race, color, religion, or national origin. Coleman's findings on the extent of the achievement gap between black and white students between and within regions, and between and within schools, highlighted the importance of families over schools for setting educational performance. (Coleman 4) Coleman sets this conclusion: "The sources of inequality of educational opportunity lie first in the home itself and the cultural influences surrounding the home. Second, they lie in the schools' ineffectiveness to free achievement from the impact of the home, and third, in the schools' cultural make-up which reinforces the social influences of the home and its immediate settings. (Coleman 10) Children from poor families deal with fewer resources in their schools Five areas are examined when building a causal argument for racial differences in academic achievement: student qualitiess and attitudes, family and home settings, peers, schools and faculty members, and neighborhood locations. Variables pertaining to students cover factors such as age and sex, attitudinal levels of the student's commitment to school, aspirations and